MICR 121 - Microbiology for Nursing Students REMOTE
Dr. Prameet Sheth
This course provides the student with a foundation in the subdisciplines of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and immunology. The course is designed to examine common infectious diseases through a body-systems approach. Laboratory and tutorial sessions emphasize diagnostic microbiology.
NOTE: This course is only available to Nursing students
One-way exclusion: May not be taken with or after MICR at the 200-level or above.
Bacterial Structure and Function Objectives
- Recognize the key components of the bacterial cell.
- Understand which components of the bacterial cell are important in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases
- Understand which components of the bacterial cell are important markers for laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases
- Understand the principle of the Gram stain and Acid fast stain
- Understand the role of bacterial structures as related to transmission of agents involved in the infectious diseases
- Understand the methods used to classify bacteria and the relevance of these to diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases
Gram Positive Bacteria Objectives
- Understand the classification system for streptococci
- Recognize the names of gram positive bacteria that are normal flora
- Understand the concept of anaerobic growth
- Understand the differences in the ways in which anaerobes are treated in the laboratory.
Gram Negative Bacteria Objectives
- Recognize the names of potentially pathogenic and pathogenic gram negative bacteria
- Understand the mechanisms of spread of the pathogenic gram negative bacilli
- Know the normal flora sites of the gram negative bacilli
- Know the primary virulence factors for the pathogenic gram negative bacteria
Viral Structure and Function Objectives
- Understand the differences between bacteria and viruses
- Understand the structure of viruses and appreciate how viruses are classified
- Understand the differences between enveloped and non-enveloped viruses
- Understand the concept of virus replication and steps in the viral life cycle
- Understand how viruses affect infected host cells
- Understand the rationale behind antiviral drug action and development
- Understand how viruses are detected and identified in the laboratory
Fungus Structure and Function Objectives
- Understand the mechanisms of fungal replication
- Recognize the key cell structures which may be targets for therapy or diagnosis
- Understand the methods used to grow and classify fungi in vitro
- Understand the concept of Dimorphism
- Understand the mechanisms of diagnosis of fungal infections. Be able to recognize the various types of direct detection methods available.
Parasite Structure and Function Objectives
- Understand the differences between bacteria and parasites
- Understand the importance of parasitic infections
- Understand the different categories of parasites
- Understand the differences between Direct and Indirect lifecycles, and understand the role of the lifecycle in disease spread
- Understand the mechanisms of transmission of common parasites
- Understand how parasites are detected and identified in the laboratory
- Understand how parasitic infections can be controlled
Host Parasite Interactions Objectives
- Understand the concepts of normal flora, pathogen, potential pathogen and non Pathogen.
- Understand the concepts of non specific host defenses and their role in the control of infectious diseases.
- Understand the role of the specific host defense in the control of infections diseases. In particular, the student will have an understanding of the role of antibody in protection from disease and as a diagnostic marker of infection.
- Understand the types of virulence factors that organisms posses in order to overcome host defenses and initiate an infectious process.
Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance Objectives
- The student will recognize the different classes of antibiotics (aminoglycosides), Beta lactams, macrolides, quinolones, tetracyclines and metabolic inhibitors) and the general mechanism of action of these agents.
- The student will understand the difference between the concepts of how Resistance arises (mutation), how Resistance is spread (e.g. conjugation), and how Resistance is maintained in the environment (selective pressure).
- The student will understand three primary mechanisms of antibiotic resistance (altered cell wall structures, enzyme inactivation, altered target site).
Control of Injections by Vaccination Objectives
- Understand the concept of vaccination
- Understand how vaccines work, what makes a good vaccine, and the different types of vaccine targets
- Be able to explain the differences between active and passive vaccination
- Understand the difference between LIVE and KILLED vaccines
- Understand the concepts of antigenic SHIFT and antigenic DRIFT
- Be familiar with the rationale for immunization guidelines and internet resources for these guidelines
Infection Control Objectives
- The student will understand routes of transmission of infectious agents
- Students will understand the concept of nosocomial infection
- Students will know the types of precautions used to protect individuals from nosocomial transmission of infectious agents
Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases Objectives
- Understand how bacterial and viral infections are diagnosed in the clinical laboratory.
- Know which tests are used in which diagnostic circumstances.
Central Nervous System Infections Objectives
- Understand the differences between meningitis and encephalitis
- Recognize the names of the agents commonly involved in bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, and viral encephalitis.
- Understand the concepts of transmission of bacterial and viral meningitis
- Understand the laboratory's role in diagnosing CNS infections
- Recognize the significance of CSF cell counts and differentials in diagnosing meningitis.
- Understand the role of vaccination in prevention of meningitis.
- Understand the concept of antibiotic prophylaxis in controlling the spread of bacterial meningitis.
- Recognize the gram film finding associated with the common agents of bacterial meningitis.
- The student will understand how serology (antibody and antigen detection) is used to make a diagnosis of a viral infectious disease.
- The student will know how to make and interpret a diagnosis of Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C
Blood Stream Infections Objectives
- Understand the different types of blood stream infections, the types of bacteremia and their associated significance with other infectious processes
- Understand the principles associated with proper Blood culture protocol
- Understand how to interpret blood culture results
- Understand the pathogenesis and detection of catheter related bacteremia
- Understand the differences between viremia and bacteremia, and how viremia is diagnosed
- Recognize the key differences between Hepatitis A, B and C
- Understand and recognize the antibody and antigenic profiles associated with Hepatitis A, B and C
Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Objectives
- The student will recognize the names of the common bacterial skin infections
- The student will recognize the names of the organisms responsible for these diseases
- The student will know the diagnostic specimens required for each of these common infections
- The student will understand the epidemiology, transmission and detection of common fungal skin infections
- The student will understand the pathogenesis of the following viral infections with manifestations on the skin: Herpes simplex, Varicella zoster, Measles virus
Genitourinary Tract Infections Objectives
- The student will understand the pathogenesis of UTI
- The student will understand the laboratory methods used to detect UTI
- The student will recognize the importance of patient education in diagnosing UTI
- The student will know the common agents of vaginitis, cervicitis, and urethritis (Chlamydia, N. gonorrhoeae, T. pallidum, Bacterial and yeast vaginosis, Trichomonas)
- The student will understand the principles of detection of these agents
- The student will know the appropriate transport conditions required for these agents
- The student will understand the stages of disease of syphilis
- The student will know the agents of disease which are transmitted sexually but which may not have manifestations in the genital tract
- The student will know the diagnostic methods used to detect these extra genital infections
- The student will understand the concept of contact tracing
Gastrointestinal Infections Objectives
- Understand the concepts associated with the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhea
- Recognize the common agents associated with bloody diarrhea and non bloody diarrhea
- Know the types of specimens, transport criteria and general approach to diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis
- Understand the principles of antibiotic associated diarrhea
- Know the detection methods associated with antibiotic associated diarrhea
- Understand the mechanisms of transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens
Respiratory Tract Infections Objectives
- The student will recognize the common agents associated with conjunctivitis, the transmission of these agents and the diagnostic tests required
- The student will understand the pathogenesis of Otitis media
- The student will know the agent of pharyngitis requiring a specific diagnosis and treatment (group A streptococcus)
- The student will recognize the common agents of tracheobronchitis and which ones require a microbiologic diagnosis
- The student will understand the difference between direct and indirect detection methods for respiratory tract infections
- The student will understand the concepts of community acquired pneumonia (typical and atypical)
- The student will understand the general pathogenesis of pneumonia
- The student will know which types of pneumonia require culture and which require indirect detection methods (antibody)
- The student will understand the concepts related to microbiologic culture of sputum specimens
- The student will understand the pathogenesis of Mycobacterial infection. The student will understand the mechanisms of transmission, detection and control of Mycobacterial infections
Emerging Infectious Diseases Objectives
- Understand the reasons why there continue to be emerging infectious diseases.
- Understand the concept and theory of antigenic shift in Influenza virus.
- Understand the concept and theory of antigenic drift in Influenza virus.
Midterm Exams: 20%
Patient Education Pamphlet: 10%
Final Exam: 35%
Lecture: 3 hours / week
Tutorial: 1 hour / week
Lab: 2 x 1.5 hour / semester