Curriculum Vitae (recent)

C U R R I C U L U M   V I T A E  (short)
July, 2016
 
NAME                 Robert  David  ANDREW 

CITIZENSHIP      Canadian 

POSITIONS HELD     Assistant Professor, appointed 1982
                                                  MRC Scholarship, July 1983 - June 1988
                                  Associate Professor, appointed 1988
                                                  Tenure awarded, 1988
                                  Professor, appointed 1993 

CONTACTS               Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences
                                      and the Centre for Neuroscience Studies
                                  Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario  K7L 3N6.
                                     Tel: (613) 533-2860
                                     Email: andrewd@queensu.ca


UNIVERSITY EDUCATION               B.Sc. (Hon.), University of Western Ontario, Dept. Zoology
                                                                                                London, Canada, 1973.
                                                         M.Sc., University of Western Ontario, Dept. Zoology
                                                                                                London, Canada, 1975.
                                                         Ph.D., Dept. Biology, York University,
                                                                                                Toronto, Canada, 1979. 

POSTDOCTORAL                               Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. Zoology,
                                                                                University of Toronto, Toronto, July 1979 - June 1980.
                                                            Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. Physiology,
                                                                                Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, July 1980 - August 1982.
                                                            MRC Postdoctoral Fellowship, July 1980 - June 1982 

SCIENTIFIC AFFILIATIONS               Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
                                                             - Scientific Review Committee III, 2001-2004; 2007-2010; 2014-2017
                                                             - Funded by HSFC 1995 - 2017 

                                                           Canadian Institutes of Health Research
                                                              - Operating Grants Panel (Neuroscience A), 2010-11
                                                              - Funded by MRC/CIHR 1983 - 2007

                                                           Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation                                                                                                                                - Early Researcher Award Panel, 2007 

                                                           Canadian Physiological Society
                                                               - Councilor, 2002-2005

                                                           Editorial Board, Experimental Neurology, 1989 – 2000

                                                           Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario      
                                                                    -  Research and Development Review Committee, 1994 – 96 

                                                           Medical Research Council of Canada
                                                                     -  Operating Grants Committee (Neurosciences), 1989-90 

                                                           Canadian Association of Anatomists
                                                                     -  Science Policy Committee, 1989-90

                                                           Society for Neuroscience

                                                           International Brain Research Organization

                                                           Canadian Association for Neuroscience

                                                           Canadian Epilepsy Consortium (CEC), Associate Member
               

 EXTRACURRICULAR                       Triathlete for the past 30 years.
                                                           Skiing, hockey, snowboarding, cycling, windsurfing, sailing 

 
PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS (past 20 years) 

Andrew RD. (2016). Spreading depression is weak or absent in the rodent lower brain. J Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Jul 5. pii: 0271678X16657344. E-pub ahead of print.

Spong KE, Andrew RD, Robertson RM (2016). Mechanisms of spreading depolarization in vertebrate and insect central nervous systems. J Neurophysiol. E-pub ahead of print June 22, 2016, doi:10.1152/jn.00352.2016

Dreier JP…Andrew RD…et al. (2016). Recommendations of the COSBID study group on recording and analysis of spreading depolarizations in neurointensive care. J Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. E-pub ahead of print DOI:10.1177/0271678X16654496. Review.

Hartings JA…Andrew RD et al. (2016). The continuum of spreading mass depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development: redefining Leao`s legacy. J Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Jun 21. pii: 0271678X16654495. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

Hubel N, Andrew RD, Ullah G. (2016). Large extracellular space leads to neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury in Na+/K+ pumps-dependent manner. J Computational Neuroscience 40:177-192.

Andrew RD. (2015).The Persistent Vegetative State: Evidence That the Lower Brain Survives Because Its Neurons Intrinsically Resist Ischemia. M.M. Monti, W.G. Sannita (eds.), Brain Function and Responsiveness in Disorders of Consciousness,© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-21425-2_10

Ventura NM, Jin AY, Tse MY, Peterson NT, Andrew RD, Pang SC. (2015). Onset and Regression of Pregnancy-Induced Cardiovascular Alterations in Gestationally-Hypertensive Mice: The Role of the Natriuretic Peptide System. Biol. Reprod. Dec; 93:142-52. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.115.132696.

Ventura NM, Jin AY, Tse MY, Peterson NT, Andrew RD, Mewburn JD, Pang SC. (2015). Maternal hypertension programs increased cerebral tissue damage following stroke in adult offspring. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 408(1): 223-233.

D'Souza Y, Elharram A, Soon-Shiong R, Andrew RD, Bennett BM. (2015). Characterization of Aldh2-/- mice as an age-related model of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Molecular Brain 8:27. doi: 10.1186/s13041-015-0117-y.

Brisson CD, Jin AY, Andrew RD. (2014) Brainstem neurons resist the same acute ischemia that injures higher neurons: Insight to the persistent vegetative state.  PLoS ONE. 9(5): e96585.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096585

Ventura NM,  Jin AY,  Peterson NT, Tse MY, Andrew RD, Pang SC. (2014) Molecular adaptations in vasoactive systems during acute stroke in salt-induced hypertension.  Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry: 399(1-2):39-47.

Brisson CD, Lukewich MK, Andrew RD. (2013) A distinct boundary between the higher brain`s susceptibility to ischemia and the lower brain`s resistance. PLoS ONE. 8(11): e79589. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079589

Brisson CD, Andrew RD. (2012) A neuronal population that dramatically resists acute ischemic injury independent of blood supply. J Neurophysiol  108: 419-430.

White SH, Brisson CD, Andrew RD. (2012) Examining protection from anoxic depolarization by the drugs dibucaine and carbetapentane using whole-cell recording from CA1 neurons. J Neurophysiol 107:2083-2095.

Douglas HA, Callaway JK, Sword J, Kirov SA, Andrew RD. (2011) Potent inhibition of anoxic depolarization by the sodium channel blocker dibucaine. J Neurophysiol 105:1482-94. 

Risher WC, Andrew RD, Kirov SA. (2009). Real-time passive volume responses of astrocytes to acute osmotic and ischemic stress in cortical slices and in vivo revealed by two-photon microscopy. Glia  57:207-21. 

Fraser DD, Andrew RD (2008). Perivascular aquaporins :  Potential post-ischemic therapeutic drug targets? Critical Care Medicine 36: 2701-2. 

Scott CA, Rossiter JP, Andrew RD, Jackson AC (2008) Structural abnormalities in neurons are sufficient to explain the clinical disease and fatal outcome in experimental rabies in yellow fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic mice. J Virology  82:513-21.

Stroman PW, Lee AS, Pitchers KK, Andrew RD. (2008) Magnetic resonance imaging of neuronal and glial swelling as an indicator of function in cerebral tissue slices. Magn Reson Med. 59:700-6.

Davies ML, Kirov SA, Andrew RD. (2007) Whole isolated neocortical and hippocampal preparations and their use in imaging studies. J. Neurosci. Meth. 166 : 203-216. 

Andrew RD, Labron MW, Boehnke SE, Carnduff L, Kirov SA. (2007) Physiological evidence that CNS neurons lack functional aquaporins. Cerebral Cortex 17 : 787-802    doi:10.1093/cercor/bhk032 

Anderson, T. R., C.R. Jarvis, A.J. Biedermann and R. D. Andrew (2005) Blocking the anoxic depolarization: neuroprotection without functional compromise following simulated stroke in cortical brain slices. J. Neurophysiol. 93: 963 - 979.

Church A.J. and R.D. Andrew (2005) Spreading depression expands primary traumatic injury in the neocortical slice. J. Neurotrauma  22:  277-290. 

Andrew, R. D., R. Hunt, J. Leroux, M. McAuley and S.C. Pang (2004) A Collection of Neuroanatomy Images. Queen`s University Press. 

Wang, W., B. Murphy, K. E. Dow, R. D. Andrew and D. D. Fraser (2003) Systemic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration down-regulates the expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) in infant rat hippocampus.  Pediatric Research 55, 604-610. 

Fraser, D.D., S. Whiting, R.D. Andrew, A. MacDonald, K. Musa, S.C. Cunnane (2003) Elevated polyunsaturated fatty acids in blood serum obtained from children on the ketogenic diet.  Neurology 60, 1026-1029. 

Anderson, T. R. and R. D. Andrew (2002) Spreading depression: Imaging and blockade in the rat neocortical slice.   J. Neurophysiol. 88,  2713-2725. 

Andrew, R. D., A.J. Biedermann, T.R. Anderson and C.R. Jarvis (2002) Imaging and preventing spreading depression independent of cerebral blood flow.  In: Brain Activation and CBF Control.  Eds M. Tomita, I. Kanno and E. Hamel.  Elsevier Sciences. 

Jarvis, C.R., T.R. Anderson and R.D. Andrew (2001) A spreading anoxic depolarization during O2/glucose deprivation mediates acute neocortical damage independent of glutamate.  Cerebral Cortex 11, 249-259. 

Joshi, I. and R.D. Andrew (2001) Imaging anoxic depolarization during ischemia-like conditions in the mouse hemi-brain slice.  J. Neurophysiol. 85,  414-424. 

Mendoza-Fernández, V., R.D. Andrew and C. Barajas-López (2000) ATP inhibits glutamate synaptic release by acting at P2Y receptors in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slices.  J. Pharm. Exper. Therapeut. 293,  172-179. 

Andrew, R. D., T.R. Anderson, A.J. Biedermann, I. Joshi and C.R. Jarvis (2000) Imaging the anoxic depolarization, a multifocal and propagating event. In: Pharmacology of Cerebral Ischemia 2000,  Eds. J. Krieglstein  and S Klumpp,  Medpharm Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart, pp. 75-94. 

Obeidat, A.S., C.R. Jarvis and R.D. Andrew (2000)  Glutamate does not mediate acute neuronal damage induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation in the hippocampal slice.  J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 412-422. 

Mendoza-Fernández, V., R.D. Andrew and C. Barajas-López (2000). Interferon inhibits long-term potentiation and unmasks a long-term depression in the rat hippocampus. Brain Research  885, 14-24. 

Jarvis, C.R., L. Lilge, G. Vipond and R.D. Andrew (1999)  Interpretation of intrinsic optical signals and calcein fluorescence during excitotoxic insult in the hippocampal slice.  NeuroImage 10, 357-372. 

Andrew, R.D., C.R. Jarvis and A.S. Obeidat (1999)  Potential sources of intrinsic optical signals imaged in live brain slices.  METHODS: A Companion to Methods in Enzymology  18, 185-196. 

Basarsky, T.A., S. Duffy, R.D. Andrew, and B.A. MacVicar. (1998) Imaging spreading depression and associated calcium dynamics in brain slices.  J. Neurosci. 18, 7189-7199. 

Obeidat, A.S. and R.D. Andrew (1998) Spreading depression determines acute neuronal damage in the hippocampal slice during oxygen/glucose deprivation.  Europ. J. Neurosci. 10, 3451-3461. 

Polischuk, T.M., C.R. Jarvis and R.D. Andrew (1998) Intrinsic optical signaling denoting neuronal damage in response to acute excitotoxic insult by domoic acid in the hippocampal slice.  Neurobiol. Disease 4, 423-437. 

Andrew, R.D., M.E. Lobinowich and E.P. Osehobo (1997) Evidence against volume regulation by cortical brain cells during acute osmotic stress.  Exptl. Neurology. 143, 300-312. 

Polischuk, T.M. and R.D. Andrew (1996)  Real time imaging of intrinsic optical signals during early excitotoxicity evoked by domoic acid in the hippocampal slice. Canad. J. Physiol. Pharm. 74,712-722. 

Andrew, R.D., J.R. Adams and T.M. Polischuk (1996)  Imaging NMDA- and kainate- induced intrinsic optical signals from the hippocampal slice.  J. Neurophysiology 76, 2707-2717. 

 
RECENT ABSTRACTS 

R. D. Andrew, Yi-Ting Hsieh and C. Devin Brisson. (2016) Spreading depression is weak or absent in the rodent lower brain. Canadian Association for Neuroscience 2016, Toronto, Canada 

P. Gagolewicz and R. D. Andrew. (2016)  Still unidentified: The channel driving spreading depolarization during ischemia. Canadian Association for Neuroscience 2016, Toronto, Canada 

H. El-Kerdawy, Jessica Carr and R. D. Andrew. (2016) Mechanisms underlying neuronal swelling during acute osmotic or acute ischemic stress. Canadian Association for Neuroscience 2016, Toronto, Canada 

R. D. Andrew. (2015) Spreading Depression and Migraine Pain as Evolutionary Epiphenomena of TBI. Co-operative Studies on Brain Injury Depolarizations 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark 

C.D. Brisson, R. D. Andrew. (2014) Spreading depolarization strength during ischemia determines higher brain susceptibility and lower brain resistance to acute injury. Society for Neuroscience 2014, Washington, United States 

R. D. Andrew and Danielle Kim. (2014) Does ischemia induce spreading depolarization by converting the Na+/K+ pump into a channel? Co-operative Studies on Brain Injury Depolarizations 2014, Boston, United States 

R. D. Andrew. (2014) Spreading depolarization strength during ischemia determines higher brain susceptibility and lower brain resistance to acute injury. Workshop on Cortical Spreading Depression and Related Neurological Phenomena. Toronto, Canada 

Andrew RD, R. Britton, S. A. McQueen, D. Kim, A. Y. Jin  (2013)  Could the failing Na+/K+ pump convert to a channel during stroke? Soc Neurosci Abstracts 2013. 

Andrew RD and CD Brisson (2013) Single neuron properties promote onset of the persistent vegetative state. Canad Assoc Neurosci  2013. Toronto. 

Petrin D, NM Ventura, N Peterson; RD Andrew, MY Tse, SC Pang, AY Jin (2013)  Spreading depolarization is attenuated post-stroke and may involve isoform-specific altered sodium-potassium ATPase function. Canad Assoc Neurosci  2013. Toronto. 

Petrin DA, NM Ventura, NT Peterson, MY Tse, RD Andrew, SC Pang; AY Jin (2013)   Spreading depolarization after stroke is supported by the alpha-1 isoform of Na+/K+-ATPase. Canadian Stroke Congress,  Montreal. 

Ventura NM, NT Peterson, MY Tse, PG Wong, AY Jin, RD Andrew, SC Pang (2013)  Molecular effects of salt-induced hypertension on the development of acute ischemic stroke in the heterozygous ANP+/- gene-disrupted mice. Canadian Stroke Congress,  Montreal. 

Petrin D, Andrew RD, Jin AY (2013) Endogenous and exogenous alteration of spreading depolarization in the post-stroke brain.  European Stroke Conference 2013. 

Ventura NM, Peterson NT, Tse MY, Jin AY, Andrew RD, Pang SC. (2013) A novel model for ischemic stroke–the ANP gene disrupted (ANP−/−) mouse: molecular effects of hypertension in the development of stroke.  Exper Biol `13. 

Andrew RD, Hsieh Y-T, Brisson  CD (2012) Projection neurons in brainstem and hypothalamus intrinsically resist acute stroke injury while projection neurons in cortex, striatum and thalamus die. .Soc Neurosci Abstracts 2012. 

Brisson  CD, Hsieh Y-T, Andrew RD (2012) Robust neuronal resistance to acute ischemic depolarization and swelling in midbrain-pons assessed with intracellular electrophysiology and two-photon microscopy. Soc Neurosci Abstracts 2012. 

Foreman-Mackey A., Peterson, N., Andrew, RD, Kaur, J., Singh, S., Jin, AY (2011) Acute stroke opens neuronal pannexin1 channels. Int. Stroke Conf., New Orleans, Feb 2012. 

Andrew, RD, CD Brisson (2011) Trauma trumps stroke: Why is our higher brain inept at dealing with blocked blood flow? Vasospasm 2011: The 11th International Conference on Neurovascular Events after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Cincinatti, Ohio. 

Brisson CD, Andrew RD (2011) Brainstem neurons in solitary nucleus resist ischemic stress compared to cortical pyramidal neurons. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 2011. 

Andrew, R D (2010) When does `personhood`begin? Understanding neural development can inform the abortion issue. Neuroethics Society. 

Pang, S. C., C.W. Reifel, L.W. MacKenzie, R.A. Easteal, R.D. Andrew, R.E. Hunt, S. Virk. (2010) Establishment of an internet-accessible, scalable gross anatomy and histology image catalogue (SGAHIC) for modern medical and health science education. Annual meeting of the Canadian Health Libraries Association. 

Brisson, D.C., R. D. Andrew (2010) Magnocellular neuroendocrine cells dramatically resist stroke-like injury in live brain slices compared to neocortical pyramidal neurons. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 2010. 

Ranepura N, C.D. Brisson and R. D. Andrew (2010) Neurons that resist osmotic volume change in brain slices and when dissociated. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 2010. 

Brisson, D.C., N. Ranepura, M. Lukewich, R. D. Andrew (2009) Anoxic depolarization in hypothalamic and brainstem slices. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.2009. 

Andrew, R. D. (2008)   When does `personhood` begin? Teaching how neural development might inform the abortion issue.   Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

White, S. H. and R. D. Andrew (2008) Whole cell recording from CA1 neurons to explain ischemia protection by dibucaine and carbetapentane. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Andrew, R. D., W.C. Risher and S.A. Kirov (2008)  Real-time volume responses of astrocytes to osmotic and ischemic stressing vivo and in cortical slices revealed by 2-photon microscopy.  Canadian Physiological Society Meetings, Lake Louise, Alberta. 

White, S. H. and R. D. Andrew (2008) Whole cell recording from pyramidal neurons help explain ischemia protection by a sodium channel blocker. Canadian Physiological Society Meetings, Lake Louise, Alberta. 

Kirov, S. A. and R. D. Andrew, (2007) Real-time volume responses of astrocytes to osmotic and ischemic stress in cortical brain slices. Canad. J. Neurolog. Sci. 34 (Suppl 3), S67. 

Andrew, R.D. and S. A. Kirov (2007) Two photon microscopy reveals real-time volume responses by astrocytes to osmotic and ischemic stress. Canadian Physiological Society Meetings, Quebec City, P.Q. 

Scott, C.A., R. D. Andrew, J. P. Rossiter, and A. C. Jackson (2007) Marked injury to neuronal processes in an experimental mouse model of rabies using YFP transgenic mice.  

Kirov, S. A. and Andrew, (2006) CNS neurons withstand osmotic but not ischemic stress. The 50th Biophysical Society Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Andrew, R.D. S. E. Boehnke and S. A. Kirov (2006) Physiological evidence that pyramidal neurons lack water channels.  Canadian Physiological Society Meetings, Lake Louise, Alberta

Douglas, H.A., G. Yang, R. D. Andrew and S. A. Kirov  (2006) Two-photon microscopical study of pyramidal neurons protected from ischemic stress by dibucaine. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 2006. 

Kirov, S.A., S. E. Boehnke and R. D. Andrew (2006)  Real-time volume responses of astrocytes to osmotic and ischemic stress in cortical brain slices. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 2006.
 
RECENT FUNDING 

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario Operating Grant.  “Higher brain susceptibility and lower brain resiliency to ischemic injury.”  Funded July 2014-June 2017. 

Gibson Award from Kingston General Hospital, June  2015.    $9,000. 

Dean`s Award in support of graduate student Steven Williams, September 2015.   $10,000. 

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario Operating Grant. “Mechanisms that drive acute neuronal swelling and dysfunction in stroke.”  July 2009 - June 2012. 

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario Operating Grant.  “Imaging and preventing early stroke damage in intact neurons.” July 2006 - June 2009. 

CIHR Operating Grant. “Neuronal damage and potential protection in the first critical minutes of head trauma”. Funded Oct. 2004- Sept.2007.
 

RECENT INVITED Symposia Participation 

Sept  2013. One-On-One Debate: "How Can Neurobiology Inform the Political Issue of Personhood?"  Aggiornamento Institute, Colorado State University. 

July 2014. International Workshop Speaker.  Cortical Spreading Depression and Related Neurological Phenomena.  Fields Institute, University of Toronto. 

October 2014.  Speaker. Cooperative Studies on Brain Injury Depolarization annual meeting. Boston MA.

September 2015.  Speaker. Cooperative Studies on Brain Injury Depolarization annual meeting. copenhagen, Denmark.

August 2016. 'Cortical Spreading Depression & Migraines'. Summer Mini-School. Florida International University & University of Minnesota. August 8-12, 2016. Supported by the National Science Foundation.



 

 

 
RECENT INVITED LECTURES
 

December 2013. University of Arizona, Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences. Why is our brain so inept at dealing with blocked blood flow?

 

December 2013. University of North Texas.  Dept of Pharmacology and Neuroscience. Why is our brain so inept at dealing with blocked blood flow?

 

 

 

 

 

Graduate Supervision

 

Currently one doctoral student, one post-doc.

 

Graduated a total of 6 doctoral students and 26 MSc students.

 

Supervised  22 fourth-year project students.

 

 

 

 

TEACHING 2012-13   (On Sabbatical 2013-2014)

 

 

LISC 414                               Progress in Neuroanatomy and Neuropharmacology

ANAT 312/812*                    Functional Neuroanatomy

ANAT 409                             Selected Topics in Histology

NSCI 429/829*                     Disorders of the Nervous System - Course Coordinator

NSCI 499                              Research Project in Neuroscience

 

NSCI 444/844*                     Controversies in Neuroscience - Course Coordinator

                                                Offered Winter 2015

 

Research Interests
My interest in Neuroscience developed while carrying out electron microscopical studies comprising my M.Sc. studies at the University of Western Ontario with Dr. Richard Shivers. Subsequently during Ph.D. research at York University in Toronto with Dr. Saber Saleuddin, I utilized neuroanatomical techniques and electrical stimulation of nervous tissue to increase neurohormone release as studied ultrastructurally and biochemically. From that work I decided to learn more about neurophysiological techniques as research tools. As a post-doc at the University of Toronto and then at the Tulane Medical School in New Orleans with Dr. Ed Dudek, I studied the electrophysiology of mammalian neuroendocrine cells and used live hippocampal slices to examine electrotonic coupling among neurons.

This approach continued in my own lab, evolving into neurophysiological studies of neuronal swelling caused when neurons are osmotically challenged or when they become hyperactive (as during epilepsy). Neurons also swell and die  when they are metabolically challenged during stroke or head trauma. Recording intracellularly from neurons or astrocytes (or extracellularly from neuronal populations) can be combined with simultaneous imaging techniques. For example, imaging light transmittance through live brain slices is a dramatic way to monitor tissue swelling and injury. I have collaborated with Dr. Sergei Kirov using 2-photon scanning laser confocal microscopy that reveals volume changes and damage to single neurons and glial in real time. Individual brain cells can be imaged in transgenic rodents engineered so that a few cells are dramatically fluorescent on a dark background in the live state. We are particularly interested in how neurons and glia respond during the early period of simulated stroke or head trauma. We can then assess potentially therapeutic drugs that reduce or prevent acute neuronal injury.

One particular research interest is a phenomenon termed spreading depression (SD), a migrating depolarization of brain cells that can be imaged in neocortical and hippocampal brain slices. Spreading depression underlies the aura (e.g. flashing lights or numbness) preceding migraine headache and may actually be a cause of migraine pain, rather than just a symptom.  A related aspect is a process similar to spreading depression termed anoxic depolarization (AD). As soon as cortical tissue experiences severe metabolic stress (as during stroke or head trauma), AD generation contributes even more stress, damaging neurons wherever it propagates. AD-like events (peri-infarct depolarizations, PIDs) recur and expand brain damage in the hours following stroke or brain trauma. My Neurologist colleague Dr. Al Jin and I collaborate to investigate drugs that reduce such damage in brain slices by blocking the AD. They also inhibit SD. We consider AD and PID inhibition to be the key targets for improving patient outcome following stroke or traumatic brain injury.

Most recently my lab is investigating in why our higher brain is susceptible to global ischemia and occlusive stroke, while our brainstem is comparatively resistant. This should reveal clues as to why our cortex is so inept at dealing with blocked blood flow.